Mi Tampi Nih Hngalh Lomi Norway

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By PETER SANG

Biahmaithi

Senri magazine tawlreltu hna nih Norway kong capar tial ding in an ka sawm ve caah catial ding cun kai hun i tim ve nain ram pakhat kong a si caah tial ding a tam i zeideuh khi ka tial lai ti thim kai harh ngai. Ahmasabik ah Norway kong tialmi cauk pakhat hnih ka kau, internet zong ka kua. Sinain ka tial duh deuhmi kha hmun pakhat te ah hmuh a har deuh caah a thim tu in ka thim hna, cupinah keimah ka duh deuh mi hna le theih tha deuh a si lai tiah ka ruahmi deuh kha ka khawmh hna i capar cu tial hram ka vun thawk ve.

‘Mi tampi nih theihlomi Norway’ tiah a tlangpi ka taar tik ah aruang tampi khi research hei tuah ning law, mi nih an theih lonak a suallam khi hei tial hna ning law a dawh ngai nain ka capar nih kha bantuk kha a tial fawn lai lo. Ka capar nih ai timhtuahmi cu, kan miphun hna zong Norway ah tampi kan phak tik ah ram chung ummi hna nih zeitindah an tlawnleen, zeibantuk minung le cozah dah a nawlngeihnak a ngei hna i, ramchung um minung hna nih zeibantuk ruahnak lungput dah an ngeih timi pawl kha tam deuh in kan thei kho deuh hnga maw ti ruahchannak he tialmi cu a si. Ram hmete pakhat a si caah le minung tlawmtuk an umnak a si caah ram dangdang sin ah cun min ngei/thang ngai si hmanh hlah sehlaw kan miphun tampi nih kal duhnak hmunhma ram pakhat a si i kan miphun a kan thahnem tu le kan i dawrnak a si ve cang. Malaysia le Thailand hrawng kan miphun hawi pawl ramdang lei hmunhma chiahthannak (resettlement program) a hngak mi hna cheukhat kaa in ka theihmi cu, Norway ka kal lo ding ah cun, kum 3-4 zong hngak rih ko ning, ram dangdang kal nak in cun saupi hnah zong ah a tha deuh ko lai an ti.

Hitluk in ram tha, thangcho pakhat le kan uar mi ram pakhat a si ko buu ah a kong tha deuh in a thei lomi kan tam kho. Senri magazine tawlrel tu pawl nih zong nih Chinmi a thawng in kan phanh/khua kan sak nak Norway ram kong tam deuh in theih a herh ko an ti ca zong ah a si kho men tu bantuk in capar tial ding in an ka sawm cu an cung zong ah lunglawmhnak chim cawk lo ka ngei.

Hi ka capar chung ah Norway kong hi then 4 in ka then lai i tial khawh kai zuam lai. 1. Norway minung pawl le an tuanbia 2. Uknak phunglam umtuning 3. Norway Nuphung (Norwegian society and culture) 4. Norway ram chung um ramdang in a rami minung hna kong le biadonghnak hna an si lai.

Norway tuanbia le an minung hna kong (The people and history of Norway)

Norway ram tuanbia zoh tik ah a tlangpi in dal 5 in then ka duh.

  1. 800-1050 AD (Hi lio caan hi ‘’Viking age’’ tiah an auh. Aruangcu, hilio minung pawl hi pakhat le pakhat rili cung in damiah i tek lio chan a si. Cun Vikings chan minung pawl hi dahmiah lawngte an rak si ve lo, lothlo midai/tha zong an rak tampi ve. AD 900 lio in siangpahrang uknak phun an rak ngei cang.)
  2. 1030-1350 AD (Krihfa biaknak a lut (AD1030), Kaatzawtnak (AD1350) a rak tlung i cheuthum cheukhat an rak thi dih.)
  3. 1380-1814 AD (Danmark kuttang ah kum 400 renglo a um hnu, 1814 ah ram hruainak phunghram zong anmah tein an hung ngei kho. )
  4. 1814- 1905 AD Norway cu ram pakhat dirhmun a hung si cang nain Sweden he ramdanglei pehtlainak riantuannak (foreign affair) le siangpahrang an i hrawm rih.)
  5. 1905- tutiang (Mah tein siangpahrang an hun ngei kho, ram pakhat tlamtling an hung si cang. 1913 kum ah nu pawl zong hruaitu thimnak (election) ah vo thlak khawhnak nawl an hun ngei.)

Norway miphun pawl hi Norseman timi miphun tengnge pakhat an si ve.Norseman pawl cu Vikings pawl ti zong in an rak auh hna. Norseman timi a suallam cu, chaklei ummi minung tinak asi. Scandinavia ram um minung pawl vialte hi chuahkehnak ai khatmi miphun pakhat lawng te an si hna. An holh hmanmi zong zoh tik ah chaklei germany holh (north Germanic language) phun a hrawmmi an si.

Nihin tu ah cun Norway ah ramdang miphun 213 renglo hmuh khawh an si cang. Norway kokek taktak chimloin mitambik a ummi hna cu; Poland, Sweden, Iraq, Danmark an si i, Sami, Pakistan, Vietnam, Philippine, Swedish timi pawl zong tam ial an um ve. Ramdangmi 100 chung ah 40% dengmang hi Norway rammi sinak (citizenship) an hmu cang hna. www.ssb.no ah hmuh khawh a si mi cu, Norway milu cheuhra cheukhat silole 9.7% cu ramdang he thisa pehtlainak a ngeimi kan si cang. 2008 chung ah 460, 000 renglo ramdang mi milu zat kan phan cang ti a si. Tulio i a kartbikmi zong hi kanmah ramdangmi lawngte kan si tik ah 2060 hrawng ah cun Norway ram hi ramdang hrihhram a ngeimi miluu zat an tam deuh cang lai tiah an tuak cang.

Kawlram minung zong 1989 tein Norway kan rak phan cang. 1990 ah Aung San Kyi a voikhatnak international daihnak laksawng (Rafto Prize) a rak pe hmasa mi hi Norway an rak si. Nihin tu ah cun kawlram minung 2000 leng an um cang tiah Norway immigration document chung ah hmuh khawh a si. Norway um kawlram minung zoh tik ah refugee background in a rami kan tambik. Hi hna lak ah Chin le Karen hi tambik cu kan si. Riantuan bak i a rami zong mi tlawmpal cu ai um, university tiang hmanh ah professor a tuanmi zong an um ve.

Norway uknak phunglam umtu ning (Political system of Norway)

Norway ram cu mipi nih thimmi hruaitu pawl umnak (Representative Democracy), le uknak phunghram ning in a cawlcangmi siangpahrang pennak (constitutional monarchy) ram pakhat a si. Ram chung nawlngeihnak sangbik cu storting (Norwegian parliament) ah ai hnget. Siangpahrang nih uknak kong ah nawlngeihnak a ngei lo, ram a lubik (the head of the state) sinak in ram le mipi hna ai a awhtu menmen a si. Cozah i thimnak ah ai zuammi political party tam nawn an um i, mipi vo tambik a hmumi hna nih cozah (Government/regjering) an ser. Cu hna nih cun, mipi thimmi (parliamentary representatives) pawl hna nih hnatlaknak an ngeih cangmi riantuan ding pawl kha an tuan. Cozah nih duh poh in rian a tuan khawh lonak ding caah storting nih control a tuah i, mipi duhnak kha cozah caah thimmi minung pawl hna nih an tuan nak (implement) ding caah storting nih a nawr. Cozah tutlai (Head of Government) cu prime minister a si.

Norway ram hruainak cu Social Democractic ti zong in an auh, aruangcu; an ram hruainak ah socialism zumhning hmuhkhawh a si ca zong ah a si. Ramchung political party nganbik tulio coalition cozah a sertu hna hi social democractic labour party (AP) cu an si. Ramchung company nganpipi (Telenor, NSB, Vinmonopolet tbtk) hna cu cozah nih an tlaih hna or cozah nih share tamdeuh a ngeih hna i ram mipi hna nih a miak kha lam tampi nih an i cheu ve than. Kha bantuk in cozah lei in mipi herhmi cheuhbeuhnak a ummi kha social welfare state ti zong in an auh. Norway ah socialist ideology cu thawng ngai in hmuh khawh a si nain, Ramchung nawlngeihnak hi tiang ka tial cangmi chung ah cungbik/lubik (state level) ram hruainak a tlangpi cu alang i, abiapi tuk ve mi ramchung hmunhma then cozah fa tete ( Fylke og Kommunestyret) kong tlawmpal in ka hun tial rih lai.

Hi bantuk in cozah fatete hmunhma pakhat cio ah kan herh timi i a idea taktak cu, ramchung minung hna authawng/duhnak kha national level riantuantu hna nih theihpiak a har deuh caah lam naih te ah nawlngeihnak sangbik a ngei vemi cozah tawlreltu pawl kan herh timi ruangah a chuakmi a si. Khua hmunhma cozah fa tete hruainak phunghram (Kommune loven) hi 1837 kum tein Norway cu an rak ngei kho cang. Hi phunghram hi 1814 ah serhmi phunghram (Grunnloven) he ai lo lomi a si. Kommuneloven nih a chim vemi cu, thimnak hi kum 4 ah voikhat tuah ding in a ti ve. Ram chung hruainak thimnak (election) hi phun 2 in a um i, kum 4 ah voikhat veve an si fawn caah kum 2 dan ah thimnak voi i kan ngei tinak a si( Stortingsvalg le Kommune/fylketingssvalg). Kum 2008 tiang ah khan ram chungah fylke 20 le kommune 430 a um. Fylke khi pyine ti u sih law kommune khi myone ti ah cun a theih a fawibik rua ka ti. Kommune le fylke hna nih an ngeihmi uknak (administration structure) khi tam deuh cu ai lo ko. Min auhdaan tete lawng khi ai dannak an si. Bianaah kommune thimmi uknak lubik cu, kommunes ordføre ti a si i fylke zong ah fylkeordfører ti a si ve ko. Uknak (administration) lei ah cun fylkerådmann le kommunerådmann hna hi lubik an si ve.

Norway nunphung (Norwegian Society and Culture)

Minung tampi nih nitlaklei ram minung pawl an nunphung hi cu ai lo dih ko lai tiah fawi tein ruah sual a fawi te. Sinain ram khat le ram khat miphun pakhat le pakhat an nunphung/nun ning (way of life) i dannak an rak ngei cio. Norway miphun pawl zong nih an nunphung kha ram dangdang, abikin Americans pawl nunphung he tahchunhnak an tuah ve lengmang tawn. I lawhlonak tete langhter khawh an i zuam. An nunphung tete kha fek tein tlaih le kilkawi khawh an i zuam ve.

Norway minung pawl nih kan nuphung tiah uang ngai in an langhter ve mi hna lak ah theihawktlak a si rua tiah ka ruahmi hna cu; Innchungkhar (family); nunphung hna hi zeitindah an thancho ve lengmang tiah cun, chungkhar in ai thawkmi a si caah abiapi bik a tungtlangpi cu innchungkhar in ai thawk tiah an ti. Innchungkhar pakhat thawknak ding caah thitumnak hi abiapibik a pakhatnak ah an chia lo. Chimduhmi cu, thihumnak um loin innchungkhar nuam/dawh tein ser khawh a si ti duhnak a si. Mi nih upatmi hna Norway minung tampi cu thihumnak um hmasa loin innchungkhar a dirhmi an tampi. Nu (women); Nu pawl hi phunghram lawng ah covo tluk tein an pee hna lo i, nitin chungkhar, khuachung khuasaknak zong ah pa he ai khat tein chawnhbiak, upatnak peek an si ve. Nu pawl hi 1913 lio tein tuanvo/covo tling (elction ah vo pekkhawhnak) an rak pek cang hna. New Zealand (1893), Finland (1906) hna hi Norway hlan ah nu hna kha pa he ai tlukmi vo thlak khawhnak an rak pek hna. Jante Law; Norway biazaai tialthiam minthang Aksel Sandemose nih Norway nunphung a langhter ngai mi phunglam a tial I cucu Jante Law tiah theih a si. Hihi rel tik ah a langbikmi cu; Norway pawl cu midang nak in a thiam/thei/tha bik ah ai ruat lomi mah um in a um duhmi miphun an si nak a lang.

Midang kha nihsawh an hman lo nak zong a lang. Anmah le anmah zong kha midang nih an kan bawmh/zohkhenh lai ti zong an zum duh lo. Mah tein a um duhmi le mi dai an si nak a langhter. Kanmah Chinmi hna zong a thawng in Norway ram ah kan phanh ve tik ah kan hmuh khawh ngaimi cu a cunglei ah ka tialmi nunphung hna khi an si. Upa taar tete zong nih an tefa le hna nih an kan zohkhenh lai i an kan bawmh lai ti an ruat lo. Voikhat cu, thil rit ngai a cawimi taarnu te pakhat cu bus stop lei ah bus tanh ding in tlik ai zuam len ka hmuh tik ah ka zaang a faak ngai I ka va zuanhnawh I na thil cu kan cawipiak lai ka ti. Khuaruahhar tuk in a ka zoh buu in a chimmi cu, ‘Jeg klarer meg’ a ka ti. Asullam cu ka tuah khawh ko tinak a si. An minung hna karlak ah zeibantuk nunphung dah an ngeih timi a langhter ngaingai.

Ramdang nunphung Norway a phak tik ah

Abikin biaknak dang a ngeimi hna Muslim hna le muisam le nunphung ai dangmi Asian pawl hna nih Norway nunphung he kan I ton tik ah a hlei in kan I harh bik. Tahchunhnak ah Muslim pawl hna nih phunglam an ngeihmi cu; cuarpaar ten a si. Cuarpaar ten lo ah cun an phung ning in a thiang lo tinak a si. Norway ah cun cuarpaar ten khawh a si ti lo, an uknak phung hrim nih a khap tik ah cuarpar ten lo ah cun kan thiang lo atimi hna miphun an phak tik ah haarnak nganpi kan tong. Hi kong hi Norway cozah cunglei tiang ah aphang lengmang mi thil pakhat a si. Cun pakhat rih cu, Asian lei ah fa le chimhhrin tik ah tuk cu kan phunglam a si cang. Mi tamdeuh nih a herhmi zong ah kan ruah I, pehzulh peng a hau ti zong in kan hmuh fawn. Norway ah cun fa le an pum/titsa fahnak pek khawh a si lo tik ah Asian minung pawl caah zulh a har tuk mi a hung si. Nu le pa tampi cu fa le tuk, vuak ruang ah zuung a phanmi kan tam.

Cozah nih immigrant politic an ngeihmi ah abiapi bik pakhat ah an chiahmi cu, integration ti a si. Anmah nih hi biafang an hrilhfiah ning ah ramdang mi hna kha Norway an si lai tinak a si lo I, abiapibik an chimduhmi cu, ramchung ihruainak phunglam (administration system) chung ah mitcaw bantuk in um loin, irem tein nun khawh cio kha a si. I rem tein le mitcaw mi bantuk in khuasak lo nak ding caah a hun herhmi cu, Norway ca le holh thiam a herh I, rian ngeih zong a hun herh. Cu lawng si rih lo, uknak phunglam, kan pawngkam um cozah/mipi zung pawl hna, abikin kanmah he ai pehtlaimi hna zung le buu pawl an riantuannak pawl theih/fian a hun herh cang. Kum tlawmpal chung ah mah tein rem tein nun/cawlcangh khawh timi cu thil har tuk pakhat a si caah, dawt khat hnu dawtkhat in lam an kan hun ser piak lengmang i a tutiang hmanmi lam pakhat cu introduction program tiah min bunh a si. Hi program nih a chuahpimi cung ah biaelnak zong a tam len nain nihin tiang ah cun thlen awk ah ceihnak zeihmanh a um rih lo.

Tulio Norway Ramchung Um Ramdang Minung Hna

Hmunhma tha/sikho deuh pakhat lei ah thialkaam ti cu, vawleicung ah minung khuasaknak ai thawkka in a um cangmi a si ti a si. 1850 hrawng in ai thawk i harsat ruang ah USA lei ah minung thawng a zaa in an rak peem. Kha a rak peemmi hna kha an va karh chin ve lengmang i tulio an chimnak lebang ah cun US ah Norway hrihhram minung million 4- 5 hrawng an um lai ti a si. Ram dangdang zong ah an tampi rih caah asullam cu Norway ramchung nak in ramdang ah Norway miphun pawl an tam deuh tinak a si. 1960 hrawng thawk in Norway zong cu tinam (oil exploration) an hmuhnak thawng in an hun kaicho ve lengmang tik ah, ramdangdang minung pawl an hun luh len ve. Tambik cu Europe in an si nain Asia le Africa lei zong in tampi an ra ve. Minung tamtuk a lut ding an si caah cozah nih 1970 thawk in ramchung lutmi minung pawl khapnak phunglam an hun ser.Cu hnu in cun cozah nih ramchung ah umnak nawl pek a herh ko a timi hna dawrnak a kawlmi hna (asylum seeker) pawl le refugee pawl kha kum khat ah zeizat tiah zohkhenh ai zuam hna. Kum 2008 thawkka ah khan Norway ram chung ah refugee in a lutmi minung 130, 000 hlei te kan si. Tu zong ah hin kum khat ah 1,500 in 2,000 hrawng hi target ah an chiah.

Ramdang minung nikhat hnu nikhat in kan kart chin lengmang. Aruangbik cu, Norway pawl hna nak in fa tam deuh kan ngei, rian le inn le lo kan ngeih cangka in chunkhat le pawl tampi kan auh hna. Muslim buu cheukhat hna nih cun, Norway hmanh hi Islam ram ah canter an duh. Khatlei in Islam hi an karh dan a ran tuk tik ah Norway pawl an thin a phang, milu control kan tuah khawh lo ah cun 2060 ah cun Islam ram ah I can dawh a si tiah islam biaknak a duh lomi buu pakhat nih an phuan chung cang. Biaelnak a tam nain a fiang ko tiah pommi cu, Islam biaknak a ngeimi hi a si khawh chung in karhkholo ding in an I zuam. Cucaah kumkhat ah refugee zeizat an ti tik zong ah krihfa a si khawh ah cun tambik laak an timh. Asikhawhlo tuk hmanh ah Muslim a si lomi biaknak dang a ngeimi tal cu siseh tiah timhtuahnak an ngei. A result pakhat hmuhkhawh a si vemi cu, kum khat refugee quota 1500 hrawng ah kanmah kawlram in a rami refugee hi 70% cung hna kan si. Kawlram in a rami refugee kan ti tik ah 90% cu Karen le Chin kan si tik ah krihfa kan si hna. Chung khat le he itonthannak (family reunification) kong zong ah refugee from Burma cu pakhatnak ruahpiakmi nan si an kan ti ko.

Biadonghnak (Conclusion)

Norway ram cu an rum, thangcho lawng siloin daihnak, mibawmtu riantuannak kong zong ah thazang amah si khawh tawk in a chuah len vemi an si ko nain Vawleicung ram ngan pipi hna bantuk in mi nih rak theih tuk mi ram cu a rak si ve lo. Keimah sianginn kainak university of Agder ah khin sianghngakchia magazine an chuah mi voikhat ke rel. Capar pakhat ka relmi cu Australia nute nih a tialmi a si. Internet chung in ramdang sianginn kainak ka sok i Norway ah ka hmuh. Culio ah cun Norway cu khua pakhat ah ka rel a ti, Sweden ram chung aum mi khua pakhat ah khin a rak ruah. Chimduhmi cu ramdang ah sianginn kai ding ai timve mi pakhat hmanh nih Norway cu a kong a rak thei lo, khua pakhat men ah a rak ruah caah mi tampi nih theih lomi Norway ram a si tiah kan capar ka dongh ter.

Reference list.

1. I samfunnet 1 (videregående skole cauk)

2. Norge etter 1850 (Norway history after 1850)

3. Camilla Buzzi 2006, Prisoner in our own country

4. www.ssb.no/flyktninger

5. www.bip.no

6. www.imdi.no

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